Programs that need a sophisticated text editor -- The simple text field control is inadequate for text-intensive applications. Many programs need editors that can handle multiple fonts and non-text items.
Programs that need a canvas with dragable objects -- The drawing toolbox provides a generic drawing surface for plotting lines and boxes, but many applications need an interactive canvas, where the user can drag and resize individual objects.
Both kinds of applications need an extensible editor that can handle text, images, programmer-defined items, and even embedded editors. The difference between them is the layout of items. MrEd therefore provides two kinds of editors via two classes:
text%-- in a text editor, items are automatically positioned in a paragraph flow.
pasteboard%-- in a pasteboard editor, items are explicitly positioned and dragable.
MrEd's editor architecture addresses the full range of real-world issues for an editor -- including cut-and-paste, extensible file formats, and layered text styles -- while supporting a high level of extensibility. Unfortunately, the system is fairly complex as a result,14 and using the editor classes effectively requires a solid understanding of the structure and terminology of the editor toolbox. Nevertheless, enough applications fit one (or both) of the descriptions above to justify the depth and complexity of the toolbox and the learning investment required to use it.
A brief example illustrates how MrEd editors work. To start, an editor
editor-canvas% to display its contents. Then, we
can create a text editor and install it into the canvas:
(define f (instantiate
frame%("Simple Edit" #f 200 200))) (define c (instantiate
editor-canvas%(f))) (define t (instantiate
text%())) (send c
set-editort) (send f
At this point, the editor is fully functional: the user can type text into the editor, but no cut-and-paste operations are available. We can support all of the standard operations on an editor via the menu bar:
(define mb (instantiate
menu-bar%(f))) (define m-edit (instantiate
menu%("Edit" mb))) (define m-font (instantiate
menu%("Font" mb))) (
Now, the standard cut and paste operations work, and the user can even set font styles. The user can also insert an embedded editor by selecting Insert Text from the Edit menu; after selecting the menu item, a box appears in the editor with the caret inside. Typing with the caret in the box stretches the box as text is added, and font operations apply wherever the caret is active. Text on the outside of the box is rearranged as the box changes sizes. Note that the box itself can be copied and pasted.
The content of an editor is made up of snips. An embedded
editor is a single snip from the embedding editor's point-of-view. To
encode immediate text, a snip can be a single character, but more
often a snip is a sequence of adjacent characters on the same
find-snip method extracts a snip
from a text editor:
The above expression returns the first snip in the editor, which may be a string snip (for immediate text) or an editor snip (for an embedded editor).
An editor is not permanently attached to any display. We can take the text editor out of our canvas and put a pasteboard editor in the canvas, instead:
With the pasteboard editor installed, the user can no longer type characters directly into the editor (because a pasteboard does not support directly entered text). However, the user can cut text from elsewhere and paste it into pasteboard, or select one of the Insert menu items in the Edit menu. Snips are clearly identifiable in a pasteboard editor (unlike a text editor) because each snip is separately dragable.
We can insert the old text editor (which we recently removed from the canvas) as an embedded editor in the pasteboard by explicitly creating an editor snip:
An individual snip cannot be inserted into different editors at the same time, or inserted multiple times in the same editor:
inserts) ; no effect
However, we can make a deep copy of the snip and insert the copy into the pasteboard:
Applications that use the editor classes typically derive new versions
pasteboard% classes. For
example, to implement an append-only editor (which allows insertions
only at the end and never allows deletions), derive a new class from
text% and override the
(define append-only-text% (class
can-delete?) (define (
can-insert?s l) (= s (
last-position))) (define (
can-delete?s l) #f) (super-instantiate ())))
MrEd supports extensible and nestable editors by decomposing an editor assembly into three functional parts:
The editor itself stores the state of the text or pasteboard and handles most events and editing operations. The
editor<%>interface defines the core editor functionality, but editors are created as instances of
A snip is a segment of information within the editor. Each snip can contain a sequence of characters, a picture, or an interactive object (such as an embedded editor). In a text editor, snips are constrained to fit on a single line and generally contain data of a single type. The
snip%class implements a basic snip. Other snip classes include
string-snip%for managing text,
image-snip%for managing pictures, and
editor-snip%for managing embedded editors.
A display presents the editor on the screen. The display lets the user scroll around an editor or change editors. Most displays are instances of the
editor-canvas%class, but the
editor-snip%class also acts as a display for embedded editors.
These three parts are illustrated by a simple word processor. The editor corresponds to the text document. The editor object receives keyboard and mouse commands for editing the text. The text itself is distributed among snips. Each character could be a separate snip, or multiple characters on a single line could be grouped together into a snip. The display roughly corresponds to the window in which the text is displayed. While the editor manages the arrangement of the text as it is displayed into a window, the display determines which window to draw into and which part of the editor to display.
Each selectable entity in an editor is an item. In a pasteboard, all selection and dragging operations work on snips, so there is a one-to-one correspondence between snips and items. In an editor, one snip contains one or more consecutive items, and every item belongs to some snip. For example, in a simple text editor, each character is an item, but multiple adjacent characters may be grouped into a single snip. The number of items in a snip is the snip's count.
Each place where the insertion point can appear in a text editor is a position. A text editor with n items contains n + 1 positions: one position before each item, and one position after the last item.
The order of snips within a pasteboard determines each snip's drawing plane. When two snips overlap within the pasteboard, the snip that is earlier in the order is in front of the other snip (i.e., the former is drawn after the latter, such that the former snip may cover part of the latter snip).
When an editor is drawn into a display, each snip and position has a location. The location of a position or snip is specified in coordinates relative to the top-left corner of the editor. Locations in an editor are only meaningful when the editor is displayed.
Two extra layers of administration manage the display-editor and
editor-snip connections. An editor never communicates directly with
a display; instead, it always communicates with an editor
administrator, an instance of the
which relays information to the display. Similarly, a snip
communicates with a snip administrator, an instance of the
The administrative layers make the editor hierarchy flexible without
forcing every part of an editor assembly to contain the functionality
of several parts. For example, a text editor can be a single item
within another editor; without administrators, the
class would also have to contain all the functionality of a
display (for the containing editor) and a snip (for the embedded
editor). Using administrators, an editor class can serve as both a
containing and an embedded editor without directly implementing the
display and snip functionality.
A snip belongs to at most one editor via a single administrator. An
editor also has only one administrator at a time. However, the
administrator that connects the an editor to the standard display
(i.e., an editor canvas) can work with other such administrators. In
particular, the administrator of an
editor-canvas% (each one
has its own administrator) can work with other
editor-canvas% administrators, allowing an editor to be
displayed in multiple
editor-canvas% windows at the same
When an editor is displayed by multiple canvases, one of the canvases'
administrators is used as the editor's primary administrator. To
handle user and update events for other canvases, the editor's
administrator is temporarily changed and then restored through the
set-admin method. The return value of
get-admin method thus depends on
the context of the call.
A style, an instance of the
parameterizes high-level display information that is common to all
snip classes. This includes the font, color, and alignment for
drawing the item. A single style is attached to each snip.
Styles are hierarchical: each style is defined in terms of another
style. There is a single
root style, named
"Basic", from which all other
styles in an editor are derived.
The difference between a base style and each of its derived style is
encoded in a style delta (or simply delta). A
delta encodes changes such as
change the font family to X;
enlarge the font by adding Y to the point size;
toggle the boldness of the font; or
change everything to match the style description Z.
Style objects are never created separately; rather, they are always
created through a style list, an instance of the
style-list% class. A style list manages the styles,
servicing external requests to find a particular style, and it
manages the hierarchical relationship between styles. A global style
list is available,
the-style-list, but new style lists
can be created for managing separate style hierarchies. For example,
each editor will typically have its own style list.
Each new style is defined in one of two ways:
A derived style is defined in terms of a base style and a delta. Every style (except for the root style) has a base style, even if it does not depend on the base style in any way (i.e., the delta describes a fixed style rather than extensions to an existing style).15
A join style is defined in terms of two other styles: a base style and a shift style. The meaning of a join style is determined by reinterpreting the shift style; in the reinterpretation, the base style is used as the root style for the shift style.16
Usually, when text is inserted into a text editor, it inherits the
style of the preceding snip. If text is inserted into an empty
editor, the text is usually assigned a style called
"Standard". By default, the
"Standard" style is
unmodified from the root style. The default style name can be changed
The exception to the above is when
text% is called with the current
selection position (when the selection is a position and not a
range). In that case, the style is remembered, and if the next
editor-modifying action is a text insertion, the inserted text gets
the remembered style.
text% for more information
about the style of inserted text.
To allow editor content to be saved to a file, the editor classes
implement a special file format. (The format is used when cutting and
pasting between applications or eventspaces, too). The file format is
not documented, except that it begins ``WXME01
n ## ''.
save-file methods define the format
internally. The file format is the same for text and pasteboard
editors. When a pasteboard saves its content to a file, it saves the
snips from front to back, and also includes extra location
Editor data is read and written using
editor-stream-out% objects. Editor information can only be
read from or written to one stream at a time. To write one or more
editors to a stream, first call the function
write-editor-global-header to write initialization data
into an output stream. When all editors are written to the stream,
write-editor-global-footer. Similarly, reading editors
from a stream is initialized with
and finalized with
to support streams that span versions of MrEd, use
read-editor-version before the header operations.
The editor file data format can be embedded within another file, and it can be extended with new kinds of data. The editor file format can be extended in two ways: with snip- or content-specific data, and with editor-specific global data. These are described in the remainder of this section.
The generalized notion of a snip allows new snip types to be defined and immediately used in any editor class. Also, when two applications support the same kinds of snips, snip data can easily be cut and pasted between them, and the same data files will be readable by each program. This interoperability is due to a consistent encoding mechanism that is built into the snip system.
Graceful and extensible encoding of snips requires that two issues are addressed:
To convert a snip from an encoded representation (e.g., as bytes in a file) to a memory object, a decoding function must be provided for each type of snip. Furthermore, a list of such decoders must be available to the high-level decoding process. This decoding mapping is defined by associating a snip class object to every snip. A snip class is an instance of the
Some editors may require additional information to be stored about a snip; this information is orthogonal to the type-specific information stored by the snip itself. For example, a pasteboard needs to remember a snip's location, while a text editor does not need this information. If data is being cut and pasted from one pasteboard to another, then information about relative locations needs to be maintained, but this information should not inhibit pasting into an editor. Extra data is associated with a snip through editor data objects, instances of the
editor-data%class; decoding requires that each editor data object has an editor data class, an instance of the
Snip classes, snip data, and snip data classes solve problems related to encoding and decoding snips. In an application that has no need for saving files or cut-and-paste, these issues can be safely ignored.
Each snip can be associated to a snip class. This ``class'' is not a class description in the programmer's language; it is an object which provides a way to create new snips of the appropriate type from an encoded snip specification.
Snip class objects can be added to the eventspace-specific
snip class list, which is returned by
get-the-snip-class-list. When a snip is encoded, the snip's
class name is associated with the encoding; when the snip needs to be
decoded, then the snip class list is searched by name to find the
snip's class. The snip class will then provide a decoding function
that can create a new snip from the encoding.
If a snip class's name is of the form
"(lib ...)", then the
snip class implementation can be loaded on demand. The name is parsed
; if the result has the form
...), then it is supplied to
dynamic-require along with
'snip-class. If the result is a
object, it is inserted into the current eventspace's snip class list,
and loading or saving continues using the new class.
While a snip belongs to an editor, the editor may store extra information about a snip in some specialized way. When the snip is to be encoded, this extra information needs to be put into an editor data object so that the extra information can be encoded as well. In a text editor, extra information can be associated with ranges of items, as well as snips.
Just as a snip must be associated with a snip class to be decoded (see
Snip Classes), an editor data object needs an editor
data class for decoding. Every editor data class object can be added
to the eventspace-specific editor data class list, returned
get-the-editor-data-class-list. Alternatively, like snip
classes, editor data class names can use the form
to enable on-demand loading. The corresponding module should export an
editor-data-class% object named
To store and load information about a snip or region in an editor:
set-region-datamethods are called for cut-and-paste encoding, but not for file-saving encoding; see Global Data: Headers and Footers for information on extending the file format.
Pick a name for each header/footer record. This name should not conflict with any other header/footer record name in use, and no one else should use these names. All names beginning with ``wx'' are reserved for internal use. By tagging extra header and footer records with a unique name, the file can be safely loaded under a system that does not support the records.
When an editor is saved, the methods
write-footers-to-file are invoked; at this time,
pasteboard% object has a chance to save records. To
write a header/footer record, first invoke the
begin-write-header-footer-to-file method, at which
point the record name is provided. Once the record is written, call
When an editor is loaded and a header/footer record is encountered,
read-footer-from-file method is invoked, with
the record name as the argument. If the name matches a known record
type, then the data can be loaded.
Because an editor can force a line break even when there is no carriage return item, a position alone does not always specify a location for the caret. Consider the last position of a line that is soft-broken (i.e., no carriage return is present): there is no item between the last item of the line and the first item of the next line, so two locations (one end-of-line and one start-of-line) map to the same position.
For this reason, position-setting and position-getting methods
often have an extra argument. In the case of a position-setting
method, the argument specifies whether the caret should be drawn at
the left or right side of the page (in the event that the location
is doubly defined);
#t means that the caret
should be drawn on the right side. Similarly, methods which calculate
a position from a location will take an extra boxed boolean; the box is filled with
#t if the position is ambiguous and it came
from a right-side location, or
In plain text editors, there is a simple correlation between
positions and characters. In an
editor<%> object, this is
not true much of the time, but it is still sometimes useful to just
``get the text'' of an editor.
Text can be extracted from an editor in either of two forms:
Simple text, where there is one character per item. Items that are characters are mapped to themselves, and all other items are mapped to a period. Line breaks are represented by carriage-return characters (ASCII 13).
Flattened text, where each item can map to an arbitrary string. Items that are characters are still mapped to themselves, but more complicated items can be represented with a useful string determined by the item's snip. Newlines are mapped to platform-specific character sequences (linefeed under X, carriage return under Mac OS X, and linefeed-carriage return under Windows). This form is called ``flattened'' because the editor's items have been reduced to a linear sequence of characters.
Within a frame, only one object can contain the keyboard focus. This property must be maintained when a frame contains multiple editors in multiple displays, and when a single editor contains other editors as items.
When an editor has the keyboard focus, it will usually display the current selection or a line indicating the insertion point; the line is called the caret.
When an editor contains other editors, it keeps track of caret ownership among the contained sub-editors. When the caret is taken away from the main editor, it will revoke caret ownership from the appropriate sub-editor.
When an editor or snip is drawn, an argument to the drawing method specifies whether the caret should be drawn with the data. This argument can be any of (in increasing order):
'show-inactive-caret display mode is useful for showing
selection ranges in text editors that do not have the focus. This
'show-inactive-caret mode is distinct from
mode; when editors are embedded, only the locally-active editor shows
editor<%> that use the clipboard -- including
do-edit-operation -- consume a time stamp
argument. This time stamp is generally extracted from the
key-event% object that triggered
the clipboard action. X uses the time stamp to synchronize clipboard
operations among the clipboard clients.
If the time stamp is 0, it defaults to the current time. Using 0 as the time stamp almost always works fine, but it is considered bad manners under X.
Clickbacks in a
text% editor facilitate the
creation of simple interactive objects, such as hypertext. A
clickback is defined by associating a callback function with a range
of items in the editor. When a user clicks on the items in that
range, the callback function is invoked. For example, a hypertext
clickback would associate a range to a callback function that changes
the selection range in the editor.
By default, the callback function is invoked when the user releases
the mouse button. The
set-clickback method accepts
an optional argument that causes the callback function to be invoked
on the button press, instead. This behavior is useful, for example,
for a clickback that creates a popup menu.
Note that there is no attempt to save clickback information when a file is saved, since a clickback will have an arbitrary procedure associated with it.
editor<%> have three levels of internal
write locking -- When an editor is internally locked for writing, the abstract content of the editor cannot be changed (e.g., insertion attempts fail silently). However, snips in a text editor can still be split and merged, and the text editor can be changed in ways that affect the flow of lines. The
locked-for-write?method reports whether an editor is currently locked for writing.
flow locking -- When a text editor is internally locked for reflowing, it is locked for writing, the snip content of the editor cannot change, the location of a snip cannot be computed if it is not already known (see
editor<%>), and the editor cannot be drawn to a display. A request for uncomputed location information during a flow lock produces undefined results. The
locked-for-flow?method reports whether an editor is currently locked for flowing.
read locking -- When an editor is internally locked for reading, no operations can be performed on the editor (e.g., a request for the current selection position returns an undefined value). This extreme state is used only during callbacks to its snips for setting the snip's administrator, splitting the snip, or merging snips. The
locked-for-read?method reports whether an editor is currently locked for reading.
The internal lock for an editor is not affected by calls to
Methods that report location-independent information about an
editor never trigger a lock. A method that reports location
information may trigger a flow lock or write lock if the relevant
information has not been computed since the last modification to the
editor<%>). A method
that modifies the editor in any way, even setting the selection
position, can trigger a read lock, flow lock, or write lock.
An editor is not tied to any particular thread or eventspace, except to the degree that it is displayed in a canvas (which has an eventspace). Concurrent access of an editor is always safe, in the sense that the editor will not become corrupted. However, because editor access can trigger locks, and because lock-rejected operations tend to fail silently, concurrent access can produce unexpected results.
Nevertheless, the editor supports certain concurrent patterns reliably. One relevant pattern is updating an editor in one thread while the editor is displayed in a canvas that is managed by a different (handler) thread. To ensure that canvas refreshes are not performed while the editor is locked for flowing, and to ensure that refreshes do not prevent editor modifications, the following are guaranteed:
When an editor's
refreshmethod is called during an edit sequence (which is started by
begin-edit-sequenceand ended with
end-edit-sequence), the requested refresh region is recorded, but the refresh is not performed. Instead, the refresh is delayed until the end of the edit sequence.
Attempting to start an edit sequence while a refresh is in progress blocks until the refresh is complete.
on-display-sizeonly when the editor is not being refreshed and only when an edit sequence is not in progress. In the first case, the
on-display-sizecall is delegated to the refreshing thread to be called after the refresh completes. In the second case, the
on-display-sizecall is delegated to the edit-sequence thread, to be called when the edit sequence is complete.
Thus, disabling an
editor-canvas% object (using
enable) is sufficient to ensure that a
background thread can modify an editor displayed by the canvas, as
long as all modifications are in edit sequences. The background
modifications will impair canvas refreshes minimally and temporarily,
and refreshes will not impair modifications in the background thread.
A second supported pattern is reading an editor in a background thread while the editor may be manipulated in other threads. Since no location-independent reads introduce locks, the such reads in the background thread will not impair other threads. However, other threads may interfere with the background thread, causing it to receive erroneous or out-of-date content information. This one-sided guarantee is useful if the background thread's work can be discarded when the editor is modified.
14 Nearly half of this manual is dedicated to documenting the editor classes.
15 This is the usual kind of style inheritance, as found in word processors such as Microsoft Word.
16 This is analogous to multi-level styles, like the paragraph and character styles in FrameMaker. In this analogy, the paragraph style is the base style, and the character style is the shift style. However, FrameMaker allows only those two levels; with join styles support any number of levels.